David Bilger - Principal Trumpet Philadelphia Orchestra  
SOUND (tone production)
Good tone production = functional embouchure and proper use of air.   The following examples focus on improving embouchure strength and focus and/or air-flow.
ball151.gif (290 bytes)1. Long Tones - play sustained notes for at least 12 beats of quarter note = 60 making sure tone is full and pitch stable.  Continue onto Clarke # 1-5 using same feeling of air-flow as long tones.  These are referred to as "moving long tones".
ball151.gif (290 bytes)2. Flow Studies - can be called lyrical studies.  Stamp, Bordogni and Cichowicz.
ball151.gif (290 bytes)3. Pedal Tones/Lip Bends - strengthens embouchure.
ball151.gif (290 bytes)4. Mouthpiece buzzing (sound development) - forces player to focus on the NOTES instead of relying on the trumpet to do it for him/her.

This is the combination and appropriate balance between the tongue and the air.   When doing this work, player must always concentrate on floating the tongue on a foundation of air.  Then work on tongue position and easy tongue motion.  Single and "K" tongue are the basis for all articulation and must be practiced separately.  Charlier #14, 16, 22, 25; Goldman # 1-4 and most of Arban sections.


- impacts all aspects of trumpet playing - especially articulation and range.  Flexibility = "tongue level exercises".   Since the tongue channels the air to produce the notes.


- referring to quickness of player's fingers and brain (including dexterity drills, transposition etudes and sight-reading.
ball146.gif (290 bytes)1. Finger dexterity - is extremely important and often overlooked.  Major, minor and chromatic scales/arpeggios and Nagel and Vizzuti studies are good for this.
ball146.gif (290 bytes)2. Transposition - Caffarelli, Bordogni and Sachse.  This is a long-time investment over years.
ball146.gif (290 bytes)3. Sight-reading - just do it.


- formation of embouchure strength, tongue position, air flow and centering....pedal tones, lip bends, flexibility studies, flow studies.  Try octave slurs making sure to change vowel from AH to EEE going low to high.  NO EXCESSIVE pressure in the upper register.  Smith Top-Tones and Stamp.


ENDURANCE (Efficiency and Loud Practice
ball147.gif (290 bytes)1. Efficiency - Always use good volume of air and high air speed.  Always play with embouchure set.   No excessive pressure.  Practice upper body relaxation.  Always think about what you are doing while you play.
ball147.gif (290 bytes)2. Loud Practice - keep sound from distorting and never cause physical pain.  Orchestral excerpts and Brandt are recommended for this work.